# Tubular surface around curve

Hello,

I need help with drawing tubular surface around curve. It is for my college project but we never used program like Sage so I don't know how to use it properly. We have Curve c(t)=(2cos(t),2sin(t),0.5*t) and I need to draw tubular surface around it. I need to calculate frenet trihedron and use it in some formula for tubular surface. Formula is on this link: imgur.com/CUCu0da. My question is how do I make 3d projection out of this formula?

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Homework ?

( 2022-01-02 11:52:10 +0100 )edit

It is more like project because I get many points from this.

( 2022-01-02 12:01:48 +0100 )edit

Okay. What do you call a "tubular surface around curve" ?

In plain English...

( 2022-01-02 19:58:29 +0100 )edit

you should answer Emmanuel @Leon1403, because if it is just an appearance of a surface (a kind of plain tube surrounding the curve), it is easy , but on the other hand if it is a real surface, then me, personally I do not know how to do it !, but people on this site surely will know how to help you

( 2022-01-03 08:15:19 +0100 )edit

Sorry, didn't see message sooner. English is not my native language but I will try to explain. This is how tube should look like. Curve should be inside of this tube. It is similar to charging cable. Plastic tube is surrounding wire.

( 2022-01-03 10:32:28 +0100 )edit

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Not (yet) a full answer (but see edit below if you are really stuck), but a (high-school level) hint, which, combined with FredericCs big fat one, should give you a solution :

Define the curve as a parametric callable symbolic expression :

t  = SR.var("t")
C(t) = vector([cos(t), sin(t), t/2])

Tangeant :

T(t) = vector(map(lambda u:u.diff(t), C(t)))
# Its norm is time independant...
Tn = T(t).norm().simplify_full()

Normal (= acceleration)

N(t) = vector(map(lambda u:u.function(t).diff(t,2), C(t)))
# Again, time-independent norm :
Nn = N(t).norm().simplify_full()

Binormal :

B(t) = T(t).cross_product(N(t))
# Ditto...
Bn = B(t).norm().simplify_full()

A vector of points where we want to plot Frenet's trihedron

tPts = srange(-pi, 11*pi/10, pi/5)

3D plot of the curve itself :

P1 = parametric_plot3d(C, (-pi, pi), color="black")

Plot the (normed) tangeants :

P2 = sum(map(lambda u:line((C(u),C(u)+T(u)/Tn), color="blue", arrow_head=True),
tPts))

The normals :

P3 = sum(map(lambda u:line((C(u),C(u)+N(u)/Nn), color="red", arrow_head=True),
tPts))

The binormals :

P4 = sum(map(lambda u:line((C(u),C(u)+B(u)/Bn), color="green", arrow_head=True),
tPts))

Now, perusing parametric_plot3d? will show you that this function can plot surfaces having two parameters. This should be more than enough for your goal...

EDIT : Do not read this before doing an honest attempt at finding the solution yourself ; otherwise, you'd lose the benefit of the homework).

This result can be used to get the desired plot. Let's define a description of the normal section of the tube (here a circle of radius r) : the vector (N(t)/Nn, B(t)/Bn) is an orthonormal basis of the plane normal to C(t). Therefore, this description is :

# Radius of a circular-section tube
var("r")
# Parametric desription of the normal section of the tube
Ts(t,theta)=N(t)/Nn*r*cos(theta)+B(t)/Bn*r*sin(theta)

and the description of any point of the tube is :

# A point of the tube
Tu(t,theta)=C(t)+Ts(t, theta)

which can be plotted (along with its center curve) by :

P1 + parametric_plot3d(Tu.subs(r==1/3), (-pi, pi), (0, 2*pi), opacity=0.5)

which should give you something along the lines of :

Note that Sage's abilities in differential geometry may give you some radically different solutions. Left as an exercise for the (advanced) reader.

Bonus points : extrapolate to this... ;-)

HTH,

more

For the computation of the Frenet-Serret frame along a curve with Sage's differential geometry tools, see the section "Curvature and torsion of a curve in a Riemannian manifold" of https://doc.sagemath.org/html/en/refe...

( 2022-01-05 11:25:39 +0100 )edit

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Last updated: Jan 05 '22