# Understanding Output in SageMath Regarding Dirichlet Characters

 p=7
G = DirichletGroup(p); G

m=3; n=ZZ((p-1)/m); print m,n

c=G

c1=c^n;c1


The output is:

Dirichlet character modulo 7 of conductor 7 mapping 3 |--> zeta6 - 1


Can anyone explain what zeta6 is? Is this the Riemann-Zeta function? Is this the whole group of units? Is there a relation to the Eisenstein primes? I'm still a bit weak in this material and am having trouble grasping some of these sage outputs. Thank you in advance!

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Sort by » oldest newest most voted Armed with some knowledge of the general structure of Sage, you can find it out:

sage: c1(3)
zeta6 - 1
sage: K = c1(3).parent(); K
Cyclotomic Field of order 6 and degree 2
sage: K.gens()
(zeta6,)
sage: zeta6 = K.gens()
sage: zeta6.minpoly()
x^2 - x + 1
sage: cyclotomic_polynomial(6)
x^2 - x + 1
sage: c1(3).minpoly()
x^2 + x + 1
sage: UK = K.unit_group()
Unit group with structure C6 of Cyclotomic Field of order 6 and degree 2
sage: UK.gens_values()
[zeta6]
sage: c1(3) in UK
True
sage: UK.log(c1(3))
(2,)
sage: zeta6^2
zeta6 - 1

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