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I can not reproduce the segmentation fault in docker (after pulling the buster image and installing sagemath from apt). Note that the version they ship is 8.6 which is quite old but does not explain the segfault. One possibility is that you have libraries that you installed manually (eg in /usr/local) that create some undesired interactions. To check linking from sage you could do $ldd /usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/sage/rings/polynomial/polynomial_zz_pex.x86_64-linux-gnu.so. In docker I got root@4fddb061c7b8:/# ldd /usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/sage/rings/polynomial/polynomial_zz_pex.x86_64-linux-gnu.so linux-vdso.so.1 (0x00007ffc67395000) libntl.so.35 => /usr/lib/libntl.so.35 (0x00007fc925346000) libgmp.so.10 => /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgmp.so.10 (0x00007fc9252c3000) libstdc++.so.6 => /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libstdc++.so.6 (0x00007fc92513f000) libpari-gmp-tls.so.6 => /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpari-gmp-tls.so.6 (0x00007fc924826000) libm.so.6 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libm.so.6 (0x00007fc9246a3000) libgcc_s.so.1 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgcc_s.so.1 (0x00007fc924689000) libpthread.so.0 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpthread.so.0 (0x00007fc924666000) libc.so.6 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6 (0x00007fc9244a5000) libgf2x.so.1 => /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgf2x.so.1 (0x00007fc924297000) /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 (0x00007fc9257bf000) libdl.so.2 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libdl.so.2 (0x00007fc924292000)  (I made this an answer because characters are limited in comments) NOTE: As Samuel made me remark buster should install 8.6. That is to say your segfault does not seem to be related to the sagemath package in buster. How did you launch Sage? Could you try $ which sage?

I can not reproduce the segmentation fault in docker (after pulling the buster image and installing sagemath from apt). Note that the version they ship is 8.6 which is quite old but does and you did not explain the segfault. run this version. One possibility is that you have libraries that you installed manually (eg in /usr/local) that create some undesired interactions. To check linking from sage you could do \$ ldd /usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/sage/rings/polynomial/polynomial_zz_pex.x86_64-linux-gnu.so. In docker I got

root@4fddb061c7b8:/# ldd /usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/sage/rings/polynomial/polynomial_zz_pex.x86_64-linux-gnu.so
linux-vdso.so.1 (0x00007ffc67395000)
libntl.so.35 => /usr/lib/libntl.so.35 (0x00007fc925346000)
libgmp.so.10 => /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgmp.so.10 (0x00007fc9252c3000)
libstdc++.so.6 => /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libstdc++.so.6 (0x00007fc92513f000)
libpari-gmp-tls.so.6 => /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpari-gmp-tls.so.6 (0x00007fc924826000)
libm.so.6 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libm.so.6 (0x00007fc9246a3000)
libgcc_s.so.1 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgcc_s.so.1 (0x00007fc924689000)