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There is a dedicated method for that for polynomials other than boolean in Sage.

Sadly it is not available for boolean polynomials, for a silly reason: they lack a dict method that would return a dictionary whose keys would be monomials and values would be coefficients.

I opened Sage Trac ticket 31198 for that.

The workaround is to write a small function to achieve that.

def as_poly(p, z):
    Print `p` as a polynomial in `z`
    a = p / z
    c = p - a*z
    print(f'({a})*{z} + ({c})')


sage: P = BooleanPolynomialRing(8, 'x')
sage: x = P.gens()
sage: p = x[1] * x[2] + x[1] * x[3] * x[5] + x[3] + x[7] * x[2]
sage: p
x1*x2 + x1*x3*x5 + x2*x7 + x3
sage: as_poly(p, x[1])
(x2 + x3*x5)*x1 + (x2*x7 + x3)