• when you write tar -xjf *.tar.bz2, you seem to be willing to install Sage from some binaries downloaded from Sage website.
• when you write apt install sagemath-common, you seem to be willing to install Sage from Ubuntu repositories, but then you should install sagemath-jupyter, because sagemath-common only ships some file that are common to all arcitectures (in particular, it does not provide compiled files, which are required).
If you want to install six, you should do that as a normal user, with the command pip install --user six. In the example you gave, you are running the pip command as root, wich is not advised, and which probably explains the error messages you get.