If you want to use the binaries, you do not have to run make, since Sage is already compiled. The use of make is only if you want to compile Sage from its source code. So, just unpack the tarball and run ./sage from the direcctory.
If you want to install Sage from ubuntu's package manager, sagemath-common is only a subset of files that are independent from the architecture, hence you will miss all the compiled stuff which can be found in the sagemath package. If you want to run the jupyter notebook, you should install the sagemath-jupyter package, which depends on sagemath, which itself depends on sagemath-common (those packages and other will be installed automatically when you will install sagemath-jupyter).