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This answer might soon become obsolete, so let me emphasise that it is written on 2018-07-12.

Porting Sage to Python 3 is work in progress.

As far as I know, a Python3-based Sage currently has no extra functionality.

Using it is a sign of enthusiasm for the development of Sage.

The casual user is expected to stick to Python2-based Sage for now.

Running make test, make testlong, make ptest, make ptestlong is a way to check whether all the examples and tests in Sage's documentation work as expected. So far, these will not succeed with a Python3-based Sage; they will help developers know what still needs to be worked on for porting Sage to Python3.

To learn more about the doctesting framework in Sage, read:

For more about Sage and Python3, see other questions tagged Python3.x on Ask Sage.