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What you are looking for is the list of all degree-8 irreducible polynomials over $\mathbb F_2$. There is no built-in function for this, but they can be found very easily if you combine polynomials which iterates over all polynomials of a given degree and is_irreducible that tests irreducibilty.

For instance:

sage: R = GF(2)['x']
sage: for p in R.polynomials(8):
....:     if p.is_irreducible():
....:         print(p)
....:
x^8 + x^4 + x^3 + x + 1
x^8 + x^4 + x^3 + x^2 + 1
x^8 + x^5 + x^3 + x + 1
[...]
x^8 + x^7 + x^6 + x^5 + x^4 + x^2 + 1
x^8 + x^7 + x^6 + x^5 + x^4 + x^3 + 1


You can also built the list of all of them:

sage: Irr = [p for p in R.polynomials(8) if p is_irreducible()]
sage: len(Irr)
30


Finally, you can have access to some specific irreducible polynomials using R.irreducible_element(algorithm='...'). Have a look at the documentation of irreducible_element for details here.