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When sage works with "real numbers", it works with floating point approximations to them. They suffer from precision loss:

sage: RR(1)+RR(10^40)-RR(10^40) == 0

That means that if you wanted to do groebner basis computations for polynomial rings over RR, you'd have to be very careful about numerical stability, precision loss, and the fact that "cancellation" is almost never exact due to rounding. It's quite different from groebner basis computations over rings with exact element representations. I am not aware of support for groebner bases over RR in sage.

Finite fields, QQ, and algebraic coefficients should be OK, though, Perhaps you can get by with those?