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The simplest is to work over boolean polynomials

sage: B.<a,b> = BooleanPolynomialRing(2)
sage: (a+b+1)^2
a + b + 1

But you can also use the more general quotient of polynomial rings (notice that in GF(2) a equals -a)

sage: R.<a,b> = PolynomialRing(GF(2), 'a,b')
sage: Rbar = R.quotient([a^2+a, b^2+b])
sage: abar,bbar = Rbar.gens()
sage: abar
sage: (abar+bbar+1)^2
abar + bbar + 1