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You can try the following with substituting b-a with c

var('a,b,c,A,B,C')
eq1 = (sqrt((c)^2 + (B-A)^2) == A+B)
assume(A>0)
assume(B>0)
solve(eq1,c)


which results in

[c == -2*sqrt(A*B), c == 2*sqrt(A*B)]


But can anybody explain me the results of the computation without the assume statements? For A,B both beeing negative the solver does not do anything and for A being bigger and B being smaller then zero, sage throws an error that maxima needs further inputs (the same as when you're not using assume)