2018-12-13 15:42:16 -0600 received badge ● Enthusiast 2018-12-09 10:57:14 -0600 received badge ● Popular Question (source) 2016-12-31 15:50:09 -0600 received badge ● Student (source) 2016-12-31 15:30:25 -0600 asked a question Plotting 2d vector fields – how to delay function evaluation I want to plot, for example, the following 2d vector field: $$\vec{F}(x,y)= \begin{cases} (0.1,0.1), & \text{for }r\le d_{min}\newline \frac{\vec{r}}{r^3}, & \text{otherwise}. \end{cases}$$ In one SageMath cell I have defined corresponding Python function: reset() dmin = 0.03 def my_vector_field_2D(x,y): vector_field = vector([0.1,0.1]) r = vector([x,y]) if r.norm()>dmin: vector_field = 1/ r.norm()^3 * r return vector_field  In another cell, I use function plot_vector_field to plot the field: var('x','y') plot_vector_field(my_vector_field_2D(x,y),(x,-0.3,0.3),(y,-0.3,0.3))  However, function my_vector_field_2D(x,y) is evaluated before it is given to the function plot_vector_field and because in this evaluation my_vector_field_2D receives instead of numbers symbolic variables x and y, expression r.norm()>dmin is always False. As a result, my_vector_field_2D(x,y) is evalueted to: (0.100000000000000, 0.100000000000000). So the plotted filed is actually $\vec{F}(x,y)=(0.1,0.1)$ everywhere and that is not what I want. How can I prevent this function evaluation? I tried something that works with the plot function (provide the plot function with just the name of a function that you want to plot (without parameters) in order to prevent function evaluation): plot_vector_field(my_vector_field_2D,(-0.3,0.3),(-0.3,0.3))  But here this method does not work: TypeError: 'function' object is not iterable. My first why question: Why this does not work? It works for plot function and also for contour_plot function and probably for some other plot functions. Then I found in the SageMath documentation that “when plotting non-symbolic functions, they should be wrapped in lambda”. So I tried: plot_vector_field(lambda x,y:my_vector_field_2D(x,y),(-0.3,0.3),(-0.3,0.3))  And the same error popped up: TypeError: 'function' object is not iterable. But this works: plot_vector_field((lambda x,y:my_vector_field_2D(x,y),lambda x,y:my_vector_field_2D(x,y)),(-0.3,0.3),(-0.3,0.3))  My second why question: Why do I need two lambda functions or why do I need to manually decompose vector returned by my_vector_field_2D function into its two components?