# Hurwitz determinants Dear all,

let p(z)=z^n+a_1*z^{n-1}+...+a_n be a polynomial where n is a positive integer and a_1,a_2,..., a_n are real numbers. Then the so-called Hurwitz determinants of order k=1,2,...,n of p are defined as det(a_{2i-j}) , 1 \leq i,j \leq k where a_0=1 and a_l=0 for l<0 or l>k.

Is there a routine implemented in Sage to compute these determinants (numerically)?

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Sort by » oldest newest most voted They aren't built in yet, but you can implement them easily. For a single one:

def hurwitz_determinant(p, k):
d = p.degree()
a = list(reversed(p.list()))
return matrix([[a[2*i-j+1] if 2*i-j+1 >= 0 and 2*i-j+1 <= d else 0 for j in range(k)] for i in range(k)]).det()


If you want all of them, then it's easier to construct the big Hurwitz matrix and take its leading principal minors:

def hurwitz_determinants(p):
d = p.degree()
a = list(reversed(p.list()))
H = matrix([[a[2*i-j+1] if 2*i-j+1 >= 0 and 2*i-j+1 <= d else 0 for j in range(d)] for i in range(d)])
return [H[0:k,0:k].det() for k in range(1,d+1)]


We can test it with a symbolic polynomial to check that we get the right formulas:

sage: K.<a0,a1,a2,a3,a4,a5> = PolynomialRing(QQ)
sage: R.<z> = PolynomialRing(K)
sage: p = a0*z^5 + a1*z^4 + a2*z^3 + a3*z^2 + a4*z + a5
sage: hurwitz_determinants(p)
[a1,
a1*a2 - a0*a3,
a1*a2*a3 - a0*a3^2 - a1^2*a4 + a0*a1*a5,
a1*a2*a3*a4 - a0*a3^2*a4 - a1^2*a4^2 - a1*a2^2*a5 + a0*a2*a3*a5 + 2*a0*a1*a4*a5 - a0^2*a5^2,
a1*a2*a3*a4*a5 - a0*a3^2*a4*a5 - a1^2*a4^2*a5 - a1*a2^2*a5^2 + a0*a2*a3*a5^2 + 2*a0*a1*a4*a5^2 - a0^2*a5^3]


The first three agree with Wikipedia, so probably it's correct.

We can also use it numerically:

sage: R.<z> = PolynomialRing(CC)
sage: p = 12*z^5 + 3*z^4 - 1*z^2 + 15
sage: hurwitz_determinants(p)
[3.00000000000000,
12.0000000000000,
528.000000000000,
-32400.0000000000,
-486000.000000000]


The stability criterion works:

sage: all(hd > 0 for hd in hurwitz_determinants(p))
False
sage: p.roots()
[(-1.08409079275927, 1),
(-0.387674058792615 - 0.997697867303632*I, 1),
(-0.387674058792615 + 0.997697867303632*I, 1),
(0.804719455172253 - 0.599032525363998*I, 1),
(0.804719455172253 + 0.599032525363998*I, 1)]


Note Routh improved on Hurwitz's criterion: Routh–Hurwitz stability criterion. You might also want to use the algorithms listed there.

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