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Integrate() Error

asked 2020-12-24 15:26:54 -0600

Oscar de Lama gravatar image

For: SageMath version 9.0, Release Date: 2020-01-01 When integrating this:

t = var('t'); f(t) = (sin(2*t)*sin(t))/(cos(t)+3)
a_2 = integrate(f, t, 0, pi)*2/(2*pi)



I get -17 ?!

If I just replace sin(2t) with its identity 2sin(t)*cos(t), and integrate again:

t = var('t'); f(t) = (2*sin(t)*cos(t)*sin(t))/(cos(t)+3)
a_2 = integrate(f, t, 0, pi)*2/(2*pi)


   -(470832*sqrt(2) - 665857)/(13860*sqrt(2) - 19601)

This last value is the correct one. Simplifying this expression (which I don't know how to do in Sage), you have:


It seems like the first result, wrongly reporting -17, somehow is missing the 12*sqrt(2) part of it.

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answered 2020-12-24 18:38:08 -0600

slelievre gravatar image

Sage can call various engines for computing integrals.

The default integration engine Sage calls is Maxima. It gets some integrals wrong, so it's always good to check by computing with several integration engines.

Here is how to tell Sage to ask SymPy, Maxima, Giac, Fricas to compute the integral.

Define the function:

sage: f(t) = (sin(2*t)*sin(t))/(cos(t)+3)
sage: assume(t, 'real')

Integrate (default choice of integration engine):

sage: a_2 = integrate(f(t), t, 0, pi)*2/(2*pi)
sage: a_2

sage: integrate(f, t, 0, pi, algorithm='sympy')
-17*pi + 12*sqrt(2)*pi

sage: integrate(f, t, 0, pi, algorithm='maxima')

sage: integrate(f, t, 0, pi, algorithm='giac')
pi*(12*sqrt(2) - 17)

sage: integrate(f, t, 0, pi, algorithm='fricas')
-17*pi + 12*sqrt(2)*pi

See somewhat longer discussion as part of an answer to a recent question about integration in Sage:

Here is how to get all the results at once as a list:

sage: zz = ['sympy', 'maxima', 'giac', 'fricas']
sage: for z in zz:
....:     print(f"{z}:", integrate(f, t, 0, pi, algorithm=z)/pi)
sympy: -(17*pi - 12*sqrt(2)*pi)/pi
maxima: -17
giac: 12*sqrt(2) - 17
fricas: -(17*pi - 12*sqrt(2)*pi)/pi

(Only include FriCAS if it is installed, otherwise an error will be raised instead of displaying the last result.)

To get the results in a list:

sage: zz = ['sympy', 'maxima', 'giac', 'fricas']
sage: aa = [integrate(f, t, 0, pi, algorithm=z) for z in zz]
sage: aa
[-17*pi + 12*sqrt(2)*pi,
 pi*(12*sqrt(2) - 17),
 -17*pi + 12*sqrt(2)*pi]

Example on SageCell:

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Great! Thanks a lot!

Oscar de Lama gravatar imageOscar de Lama ( 2021-01-02 21:13:48 -0600 )edit

Glad I could help!

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slelievre gravatar imageslelievre ( 2021-01-03 08:38:31 -0600 )edit

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Asked: 2020-12-24 15:26:54 -0600

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Last updated: Dec 24 '20