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x=var('x') - getting TypeError: cannot perform reduce with flexible type

asked 2013-12-05 00:44:48 +0200

BobBetz gravatar image

updated 2013-12-05 22:08:08 +0200

ppurka gravatar image

I just installed Sage 5.12 under Mac OSX 10.9 (Mavericks). I started the notebook and then proceeded to work through the "Getting started" document. In Chapter One, the first page there is an example of Symbolic programming. It starts with:


When I evaluate this I get the following error:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "", line 10, in <module>
    exec compile(u'open("","w").write("# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-\\n" + _support_.preparse_worksheet_cell(base64.b64decode("eD12YXIoJ3gnKQ=="),globals())+"\\n"); execfile(os.path.abspath(""))
  File "", line 1, in <module>

  File "/private/var/folders/k_/vvbn4jxs6jx2z21s7xdj088c0000gq/T/tmpZ3Z0gy/", line 2, in <module>
    exec compile(u"x=var('x')" + '\n', '', 'single')
  File "", line 1, in <module>

  File "/Applications/", line 2693, in var
  File "/Applications/", line 68, in _var
    arrmean = um.add.reduce(arr, axis=axis, dtype=dtype, keepdims=True)
TypeError: cannot perform reduce with flexible type


If I try this from the SAGE command line (as opposed to the notebook) it appears to work. Am I doing something fundamentally wrong by using the notebook for this?

It is Sage's own introductory example, and it is not working! It is the first thing I tried, so it does not give one confidence with the system.

The error appears to be emanating from it's own internal version of Python.

Thanks in advance for any help.



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2 Answers

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answered 2014-07-31 00:05:42 +0200

bigduke gravatar image

updated 2014-07-31 13:32:16 +0200


Sage is based on Python. This error comes from numpy.var function (variance calculation on numeric array) like numpy.var([1,2,3]) = 0.6666666666663. I had the same problem because I use a file which import all from numpy (from numpy import *) each time I start a python console. Commenting this import will solve the problem and Sage will recognize the var function (which comes from sympy.var, var as variable not variance).

So in Sage : x=var('x') won't produce any error and it works fine.

Another solution is to "import numpy as np" or simply "import numpy" to make sure we don't overwrite "variable" with "variance".



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answered 2017-10-14 13:33:00 +0200

Thank you - I had a similar issue with the f(x) = cos(x) example. In my case, I found the solution in ~/.ipython/profile_default/, by commenting out the line c.InteractiveShellApp.pylab = 'auto', which also seems to import numpy.

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Asked: 2013-12-05 00:44:48 +0200

Seen: 3,968 times

Last updated: Jul 31 '14